This map of Britannia, depicting the ‘nation states’ found on the island and ‘ethnic groups’ dominating the island at that time (A.D. 660) is helpful in understanding our Whittington family history, and aspects of Slaymaker history (the Campbell bloodline leading back through the centuries to Robert Bruce).

Cedric, an Anglo Saxon, landed on the south end of the island in Hampshire in the year 495. He is a great grandfather in the family tree. He won a significant victory against the local population of Britons at Netley Marsh (c. 508). From that point forward the Anglo Saxons, aka English, would eventually drive the Britons into the more remote reaches of the island, signified in red in the map above.

The generations of rulers (outlined elsewhere in this maze of cyber pages) descending from Cedric to Alfred the Great, expanded the territory of Wessex and subjected the clans and people of the far reaches of the island. There was frequent and bitter resistance to the rule of Wessex and that resistance came from Wales, Cornwall and Scotland.

The tales told in our family tree relate the almost constant friction, bloodshed and rancor that dominated life on the island. It is difficult to find a decade where peace was in evidence. Battles frequently pitted brother against brother or sister and parents against child.

Please note the kingdoms of Gwynedd and Powys depicted to the left on the island, in present day Wales. These two kingdoms are very important to the Whittington and Slaymaker history. It is from these kingdoms that one of the great names in the family and Welsh history emerges: Llywelen the Great, his daughter (Gwenellyn ferch LLywelen) and a number of other Welsh siblings, grandparents who fought the Norman invasions of Wales. It is also from this area that grandfather Fulk fitz Warin and his descendants battled to protect a domain (1100 to 1500 A.D.) that included Whittington Castle and many others. To the right side of this map we find three kingdoms (East Anglia, Essex and Kent) from which, 1ooo years later (1638) a number of grandmother Laurel Sullivan’s great grandparents would flee England and the cruel persecution of the notorious Archbishop Laud. The roots of the protestant revolution against Laud began at St. Gilles Cathedral in Edinburgh, Scotland where we ended our recent tour.